"On 2 August the newly constructed battleships Littorio and Vittorio Veneto entered service. They were the splendid products of the Navy’s best designers and of Italian master workmanship. At that time they were probably the best battleships in the world, not so much for their firepower as for the technical improvements which had overcome those hundred and one problems that must be solved to make a great ship fully effective." (The Italian Navy in World War II, 1957, by Commander Marc’ Antonio Bragadin, at page 32)

Before World War One Italy was allied with Germany and Austro-Hungary and considered France as her most likely opponent. Accordingly her naval construction programs were centered to counter French moves. Her first three dreadnought designs centered around the 12-inch gun. With Dante Alighieri of 1909 Italy was first to create a design featuring the triple gun turret. In 1910 three more battleships of a much improved design, the Cavour Class, consisting of Conte di Cavour, Giulio Cesare and Leonardo da Vinci. In 1912 two more ships were ordered to a slightly improved design, the Duilio Class, consisting of Caio Duilio and Andrea Doria. With the last two Italy chose to stay with the 12-inch gun in spite of the fact that Great Britain had moved on to the 13.5-inch as main armament. There were two basic reasons for this: her likely opponent France still built her ships with that armament, as well as did neighbor Austro-Hungary and Italy did not have the necessary infrastructure to prepare a heavier weapon and did not want to delay construction to do so. The next design leaped from the 12-inch to the 15-inch gun in main armament. The four ships of the Francesco Caracciolo Class were laid down in 1914. However, when Italy entered the war on the side of the allies all work on these heavily gunned ships was stopped and ships were cancelled in 1916.

Italy suffered one loss to her dreadnought fleet during the war. Late in the night of August 2, 1916 a fire developed near the aft magazine of the da Vinci. The captain ordered the magazines flooded but before that could occur the magazine blew up. The ship capsized in shallow water. Thought was given to raising her but it was decided that it wasn’t worth the effort. After the war Italy did not have the finances to start new construction and saw no problem with her allowance of battleships under the terms of the Washington Treaty. Under the treaty she could start a new 35,000-ton battleship in 1927 with another following in 1929. The Regia Marina still eyed France as the most likely opponent and wanted numbers rather than size. With the allowable tonnage it was thought wiser to build three smaller 23,000 ton battleships armed with the 13.5-inch gun. This was subsequently amended to each ship carrying six 15-inch guns with the appearance of a much larger version of the cruiser Pola. However, the appearance of the French Dunquerque upset the apple cart and Italian designers went back to the drawing board. Now the admirals wanted two 35,000-ton ships rather than the three smaller ships.


Plan, Profile & Quarter Views
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Initially the 16-inch gun was chosen for the main armament but again Italy found that she could not produce the desired ordnance. Since she had produced a 15-inch gun for the cancelled Caracciolo Class, that gun was adopted for the new design. The final design far exceeded the 35,000-ton treaty limit. At 40,724-tons, the pair of Vittorio Veneto and Littorio were the heaviest battleships laid down since HMS Hood to be completed. In the late 1920s the Regia Marina had built heavy cruisers over the treaty limit and lied about their true displacement so it was an easy matter for them to do the same with these twins. As with the earlier cruisers the navy did not want to sacrifice any design requirement to come within the treaty limits. Both ships were laid down on October 28, 1934.

In spite of the excess tonnage, the Italian design did sacrifice one key attribute, range. Operations were really not anticipated outside the Mediterranean and therefore the class was never expected to wander too far from an Italian port. A comparison of the ranges of the last battleships to be built upon resumption of modern battleship construction reveals the following: Vittorio Veneto – October 1934, 128,000shp 30 knots, 4,580nm at 16 knots: Richelieu – October 1935, 150,000shp 30 knots, 5,500nm at 18 knots: Bismarck – July 1936, 163,000shp 30 knots, 8,410nm at 15 knots: King George V – January 1937, 110,000shp 28.5 knots, 15,600nm at 10 knots: Yamato – 150,000shp 27.5 knots, 7,200nm at 16 knots: North Carolina – October 1937, 121,000shp 28 knots, 15,000nm at 15 knots. With less than a third of the range of the USS North Carolina the class was clearly limited in the event of Atlantic operations. The ships had four shafts with both Littorio and Vittorio Veneto exceeding the design 30 knots on trials. This is hardly surprising as the ships were not fully loaded. Littorio hit 31.29 knots on 137,649shp on 41,122 tons while Vittorio Veneto was slightly faster at 31.43 knots on 132,771shp on 41,471 knots.

The armor scheme for the pair incorporated the uniquely Italian Pugliese cylinder system. This system had been previously used on the rebuilds of the older battleships and used a hollow steel cylinder twelve ½ feet in diameter. The cylinder ran the length of the armored citadel of the ship and served as a shock absorber against torpedo hits. In theory the cylinder would absorb the shock of torpedo damage and crush before the shock reached the inner armored bulkhead. The class carried a respectful scheme of armored protection. The disposition was somewhat odd in that the external belt was only 70mm in thickness with the main belt of 280mm located inboard from the side by 250mm. The external belt was designed to decap AP shells before they reached the main belt. The belt ran from the front of A barbette to the end of X barbette with 210mm transverse bulkheads connecting the side belts, forward and aft. Turret armor was 350mm on their faces and 200mm on the sides. Barbette armor was 350mm above the deck and 280mm below. Even the secondary turrets had an impressive 280mm of armor on their faces. The central conning tower tube was a tapering structure that extended uo through all of the levels of the forward superstructure. At the lower levels the armor here was only 60mm but from there key levels had up to 250mm of armor. 


Bow, Stern & Barbettes
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All of the armament was of new design. The 15-inch guns were not repeats of those built for the Caracciolo but a 1934 Model 15-inch/50 built by Ansado for the Littorio and OTO for the Vittorio Veneto. The 6-inch/55 secondary guns were also apportioned between the two manufacturers. The Ansaldo Model 1934 equipped the Littorio and the OTO Model 1936 equipped the Vittorio Veneto. These were designed for surface combat and not DP work, although they did have special AA barrage rounds. Antiaircraft defense was surprisingly extensive for the time and particularly impressive when compared against the USN and RN designs. Heavy AA came in the form of twelve 3.5-inch/50 guns mounted singly in turrets flanking the superstructure. Light AA comprised twenty Breda 37mm/54 guns in eight twin and four single mounts and sixteen 20mm Breda 20mm/65 guns organized in eight twin mounts.

On unique feature of this class was the break at the extreme aft to the low quarterdeck. For one thing that limited blast damage from the guns of X turret, which was also limited by the high X barbette. As originally proposed there were to be two catapults amidships with hangars but this was declined. Then a truly visionary proposal was made. Why not use the low quarterdeck to operate six La Cierva autogyros, which was an early form of the helicopter. That too was ditched in favor of a conventional single catapult with two, then three Meridianali RO.43 floatplanes. By 1942 one Ro.43 in Littorio was landed in favor of loading a wheeled Re.2000 fighter and Vittorio Veneto landed two of the floatplanes for two of the land fighters. Given the deteriating aerial situation it was decided that it would be better to have the limited "fire and forget" protection of the non-recoverable fighters, rather than scout floatplanes.

As ambitious projects, the first pair were slow in building. Almost three years passed from them being laid down to being launched in the summer of 1937. Also in 1937 two more of the class, slightly modified, were ordered as the Roma and Impero, both of which were laid down in 1938. The initial pair were just completing when Italy jumped into World War Two with Vittorio Veneto completed on April 28, 1940 and Littorio completed on May 6, 1940 after almost six years in construction. Vittorio Veneto had actually been first used for machinery trials in October 1939. She joined the fleet at Taranto on May 15, 1940. Neither ship was made fully operational until August 2, 1940.

The pair quickly made two quick sorties accompanied by three of the older battleships and numerous smaller ships. On August 31 as part of five battleships, ten cruisers and 34 destroyers, they set off to intercept British warships "Operation Hats" "Thus five battleships, the Littorio, Vittorio Veneto, Cesare, Cavour, and Duilio, took to sea with 10 cruisers and 34 destroyers. The Italian naval forces were at that moment were in magnificent condition as to effectiveness, readiness for action, and fighting spirit." ." (The Italian Navy in World War II, 1957, by Commander Marc’ Antonio Bragadin, at page 33) However, due to poor reconnaissance missed contact after coming within 100 miles of the British Alexandria force and returned to port the next day. Four weeks later as part of a force of five battleships, eleven cruisers and 23 destroyers they sortied on September 29 to intercept the British Mediterranean Fleet which was supporting two cruisers taking troops to Malta. Again they returned to port the next day after no contact was made. Vittorio Veneto was at Taranto with the rest of the fleet on the night of November 11, 1940 when British Swordfish scored a spectacular success against the Italian fleet. She was lucky and was not damaged. Littorio was not so lucky as she took two torpedoes. One hit forward on the starboard side and one aft on the port side. She had significant internal flooding and her bow settled on the bottom of the harbor. She was docked on December 11, 1940 and repairs lasted until March 11, 1941. 


Amidships
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Battle of Cape Teulada
After the attack Vittorio Veneto sailed for Naples to operate from a more secure area. As fleet flagship she led the fleet in a sortie on November 26, 1940 that result in a brief engagement with the British fleet south of Sardinia. Less than two weeks after the British strike on Taranto, the Regia Marine could still muster Vittorio Veneto, Cesare, six heavy cruisers and 14 destroyers and the force made contact with the Royal Navy. This was known as the action off Cape Spartivento by the British and the Battle of Cape Teulada by the Italians. By 1130 on November 27 the British Gibraltar force had joined with the British Alexandria force for a total strength of Renown, Ramilles, Ark Royal, seven cruisers and 15 destroyers. When Admiral Campioni finally received reconnaissance reports, they overestimated the British force to include three battleships as well as the carrier. Campioni, based on this information, decided to decline an engagement. Nonetheless contact was made, as Campioni was retiring towards Naples. The Italian 3rd Cruiser Division was steaming south of the main force and at 1215 sighted a British cruiser force. The 1st Cruiser quickly joined the 3rd in firing on the British cruisers. Italian fire was accurate and after a couple of hits HMS Berwick was forced to retire. Then at 1224 Renown came charging in and the tables were turned. The destroyer RN Lanciere was hit twice and left dead in the water. The Italian cruisers were ordered to deploy a smokescreen and fall back upon Vittorio Veneto. AT this time 11 Swordfish from Ark Royal made their attack. Six went for Veneto and five for the cruiser Fiume but both evaded the torpedoes launched against them. Veneto also engaged British cruisers with the 15-inch guns from her aft turret. Veneto only fired 19 shells before the range opened beyond effective range and no hits were scored. "At 1300 the British cruisers had come within range of the Vittorio Veneto, and the battleship opened fire. By the forth salvo the Italian battleship had the cruisers ‘zeroed in.’ As soon as the cruisers saw that they were under the fire of 381-mm guns, they broke off quickly toward the southeast, laying down heavy smoke screens as they went. Thus contact was quickly lost. By 1310 both sides had ceased fire." ." (The Italian Navy in World War II, 1957, by Commander Marc’ Antonio Bragadin, at page 52)

Although Campioni still continued towards Naples, Admiral Somerville also did not press the action. The 3rd Cruiser Squadron made contact with the immobile Lanciere and towed her to safety. The fleet returned to Naples. One area that was abundantly clear was the contrast between the British and Italian aerial support of naval units. The Fleet Air Arm as represented by Ark Royal was integral to the British naval operations. The response was almost instantaneous to the naval commander. On the other hand the Italian aerial-naval cooperation was hapless. Although Campioni had immediately requested aerial attacks on the British force and fighter protection, it did not arrive until the end of the day, long after it was needed, even though the engagement was very close to the Italian airfields on Sardinia. The request for support had to overcome layer after layer of inertia as it wended its way through the Italian airforce bureaucracy.

Over the night of January 8 through 9, 1941 RAF bombers attacked the fleet in Naples. Veneto but was not hit but Cesare was, leaving the Veneto as the only serviceable battleship. Because of the attack and this situation she was moved north to La Spezia as an escort for the damaged Cesare. Operating from here she, along with other units, made two sorties south, both without contact.


Superstructure
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Gavdos and Matapan
On March 22, 1941 she was again based at Naples. On March 26 the fleet sortied to attack British shipping around Greece. She was joined by eight cruisers and thirteen destroyers as she proceed around the Italian boot. The force was south of Crete on the morning of March 28 near the small island of Gavdos when Veneto engaged four British light cruisers. The Orion, Ajax, Perth and Gloucester had been sighted at 0635 by a Ro.43 from Veneto. The cruisers with four destroyers were only 50 miles from the Italian battleship. The 3rd Cruiser Division consisting of Trieste, Trento and Bolzano closed the British. At 0758 they were sighted and at 0812 opened fire at 25,000 meters. The British force withdrew from the Italian heavy cruisers and for forty minutes an ineffective long range gun duel was maintained. At 0850 the 3rd Division was ordered to reverse course and the British turned to follow them in turn. It was clear that the British did not know Veneto was close by. Admiral Iachino, the Italian commander, hoped to catch the British in a vice between the 3rd Cruiser Division on one side and the Vittorio Veneto on the other and at 1030 reversed the course of his flagship the Veneto. "At 1050 the Vittorio came within sight of Pridham-Wippell’s ships, which were taken completely by surprise. Iachino now ordered the 3rd Division to reverse its course to form the other half of the pincers, and at 1056 the Vittorio Veneto opened fire with her heavy guns at a range of about 25,000 meters. The British cruisers immediately pulled away at full speed toward the southeast. Covering themselves with heavy smoke screens, zig-zagging, and replying to the Italian fire with only a few salvos, they fled from the 381-mm. Shells, their higher speed increasing their distance from the battleship all the while. In the official British report it is noted that the Italian fire was`well aimed, and that one shell fell so close to the Orion that the ship was damaged considerably. The report said that the Gloucester – in the very moment in which the firing stopped – was in ‘very grave danger." ." (The Italian Navy in World War II, 1957, by Commander Marc’ Antonio Bragadin, at page 88) The Italian trap was imperfectly formed because the scouting Ro.43s had already departed for Rhodes much earlier because of their limited endurance.

It didn’t take long for the Fleet Air Arm to come to the aide of the British cruisers. At 1100 six Swordfish from HMS Formidable were sighted and maneuvered to attack positions. At 1115 they bored in to attack the Veneto. "By 1115 the British torpedo planes had maneuvered into an attack position, and the Vittorio Veneto, at the very moment that its guns were about to reap the harvest of their fire, was forced to maneuver to defend itself against this new threat." ." (The Italian Navy in World War II, 1957, by Commander Marc’ Antonio Bragadin, at page 89) The Vittorio Veneto seemed to have a charmed life. She had never been damaged. She was at Taranto and was untouched from the famed British night attack. Other bombing attacks missed and she didn’t receive a scratch at Teulada. Again the British failed in their attempt to harm the Veneto as all torpedoes missed. However, it did allow the British cruisers to break contact and escape. Under aerial attack and with none of the promised air support materializing, Iachino set course for Taranto at 1130. Throughout the day the Italian force was subjected to British air attack but there was still no damage. At 1520 the charmed life of the Vittorio Veneto was about to end. She was subjected to a combined bomber and torpedo bomber attack. As the Italian anti-aircraft guns engaged the level bombers, three Swordfish came in at water level from the stern. "Passing close to the Vittorio Veneto, the three planes changed their courses simultaneously and launched their torpedoes from three directions against the battleship. One plane was shot down, but the great hull of the Vittorio could not be swerved in time to escape the torpedo which the plane had launched from a very short distance away. The screws on the port side took the blow." ." (The Italian Navy in World War II, 1957, by Commander Marc’ Antonio Bragadin, at page 89-90) The Veneto temporarily went dead in the water. Her port side propellers were damaged and she also took on over 4,000-tons of water. After ten minutes she got underway again and slowly increased speed to 20 knots on starboard shafts alone on her way back west to Taranto 420 miles away, which she reached in the afternoon of the next day.

During the attack on Veneto the heavy cruiser Pola was also hit. The Royal Navy thought that they had one of the two modern Italian battleships badly damaged and at their mercy, so they closed in. British pilots had mistakenly reported multiple torpedo and bomb hits from previous attacks. Warspite, Barham and Valiant were with Formidable and moved in for a night engagement. This resulted in the Battle of Cape Matapan in which the damaged Pola and three other Italian heavy cruisers were sunk.


Armament
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Because of the damage incurred on this sortie Vittorio Veneto was under repair until July 1941. On August 22 she along with Littorio, four cruisers and fourteen cruisers left to attack a Malta Convoy "Operation Mincemeat" but again no contact was made and the force returned on the 25th. The next month almost the identical force left to go after another Malta convoy, "Operation Halberd", again without result. While providing heavy support for Operation M41 of an Italian convoy to Benghazi in December Vittorio Veneto was struck by a torpedo from the British submarine HMS Urge in the Straits of Messina. Littorio was at the same time on sortie against another Malta convoy but was recalled after her sistership was torpedoed. This again put her into drydock for many months. Littorio was assigned as heavy escort for North African convoys. On December 16, 1942 she was engaged in Operation M42 and the First Battle of Sirte occurred but Littorio played no part in it. On January 3 through 6 1943 she was part of heavy escort for Operation M43. On March 21 Littorio against sortied against a Malta bound convoy and this resulted in the Second Battle of Sirte. The gunfire from Littorio severely damaged the RN destroyers HMS Havock and HMS Kingston as well as hitting the Dido Class light cruiser, HMS Euryalus. Very heavy weather broke up the engagement.

On June 14, 1942 Vittorio Veneto and Littorio were part of the force that sailed to attack the Royal Navy during "Operation Harpoon/Vigorous". Although the light forces became engaged, the Veneto and Littorio did not. While returning to port on the 16th a bomb from a B-24 Liberator struck the crown of the first turret of Littorio but failed to cause much damage. However, shortly thereafter a British Wellington put a torpedo into her starboard bow. She was repaired at Taranto in a couple of months. With the growing fuel shortage, sorties became more infrequent. Veneto’s next mission came in November 1942 with the allied "Operation Torch" landings. This amounted to changing ports from Taranto to Naples and then, after another air attack on December 4, back to the north at La Spezia, where she was joined by Littorio. Veneto was still at La Spezia on June 5, 1943 when the USAAF made another attack on the Italian fleet. This time the battleship was hit by two bombs on her portside. Because of this damage, she was transferred all of the way north to Genoa. In that same attack Littorio was hit by three bombs but apparently was not as damaged to the degree of her sistership. Littorio was renamed to Italia on June 30, 1943, after the collapse of the Mussolini government and his arrest, as the name Littorio was the name for the fascist emblem.

When Italy entered into an armistice with the allies, Vittorio Veneto was still at Genoa, which would be shortly occupied by the German Army. On September 9, 1943 she sailed with the rest of the fleet for Malta. On September 14 she was sent to Alexandria, Egypt and on October 17, 1943 to be laid up. Because of politics and limited operational resupply abilities for her armament, she was not used for allied operations like many of the smaller Italian warships were. Littorio along with the Roma were the targets of the first successful usage of the guided missile. Attacked by He-177s armed with Fritz-X radio guided missiles Roma was struck twice and suffered a magazine explosion. Italia was hit once forward of the first turret. Luckily the missile passed through the deck and out of the hull side before exploding when it hit the sea. In spite of this the hit and shock caused significant damage to the hull but at least she was not lost like the newer Roma. Italia went to Egypt with her sister.

They sat neglected in Egypt for three years, well past the end of the year. Finally on October 6, 1946 she left for Augusta. Vittorio Veneto was given to Great Britain as a result of the 1947 Peace Treaty but the RN certainly didn’t need an Italian designed and equipped battleship. They didn’t have the money to maintain their own designs. Veneto returned to La Spezia on October 14, 1946 and was paid off on January 3, 1948 to be stricken and scrapped one month later, less than eight years from when she was first commissioned. Likewise, the same fate awaited Italia. She was awarded to the United States and was stricken on June 1, 1948 at La Spezia and soon broken up. ." (History from Battleships of World War Two, An International Encyclopedia, 1998, by M.J. Whitley; The Italian Navy in World War II, 1957, by Commander Marc’ Antonio Bragadin


Aircraft & Ship's Boats
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Regia Marina Vittorio Veneto
Although I have called this kit a model of the Vittorio Veneto, it can be used to portray either the Veneto or sistership, Littorio. Actually I guess you could model a Roma as well but there are more differences between her and the first two. This kit addresses the first two of the class. As with any post London Treaty battleship design, the Veneto has a nice large hull. With the Regia Marina Vittorio Veneto a great deal of detail is part of the hull casting. This is actually a re-release from Regia Marina of the kit and there are significant differences between the kit as originally released and the form of this re-release. Rob Mackie did a review of the first release (Click for Review of Regia Marina original release). One obvious difference in the hull mold are the barbettes for the 3.7-inch tertiary guns. The are integral to the hull originally but are separate parts with the re-release. Another very high impact difference comes with photo-etch. The original kit had none but this version comes with four, count them, four frets of stainless steel photo-etch.

Many of modern battleship designs had rather smooth, featureless hull sides. This is certainly not true with the Veneto. In a reverse of tumblehome the hull narrows slightly as it descends from the deck towards the anti-torpedo bulge. The torpedo bulge then juts dramatically outward as this is the area that contained the pugliese crush tanks. Because of these features in the original the hull sides of the Regia Marina kit are much more dramatic than the models of most other modern battleship kits. To go with this there are other features on the hull sides. There is just a single row of portholes but there are other features on the hull sides that add relief. The bow anchor positions are somewhat unusual in that the top edge is raised slightly above the foc’sle. On unusual aspect about this kit comes with the series of three boat booms on each side of the hull. On each side there is one on the sides of the foc’sle, one on each side of Y turret and on at the quarterdeck. On each side one of the booms is resin cast into the hull but the other two are brass rods already fixed into place. On the port side the brass booms are the fore and aft ones with the Y barbette boom in resin. On the starboard side the aft boom is resin and the two forward booms are brass. In any event, whether brass or resin, the boat booms add another level of detail to the hull.

The Regia Marina kit also has a significant amount of the superstructure cast as part of the hull. This includes the barbettes, forward and aft 01 and 02 levels, both funnels and director towers. That does a number of things. It reduces the parts count, ensures that the superstructure levels are in alignment and simplifies assembly of the model. The simplification is significant in that even with this, this kit has plenty of parts and will take some time to assemble. The superstructure sides have more detail than on the hull for obvious reasons. Included in the detail are square window ports, door openings, inclined ladders on the barbettes and ventilator louvers. 


Platforms & Fittings
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Traditionally it is the deck of a model that packs the most detail and this also true with the Veneto. With this kit that detail is very plentiful right from the bow. There are all sorts of bitts, bollards, windlasses, reels, coamings and other fittings. Most of the winches and windlasses have very nice undercuts. Anchor chain is cast on the deck but it is also provided as photo-etch. Although cast on anchor chain is fine, I would prefer to use the photo-etch but I’ll have to remove the resin versions cast onto the deck to do this. Also on the foc’sle is an odd feature that looks like an athwartship catapult but apparently is a fitting used for deployment of paravanes. Another odd feature of this design is the location of the breakwater. The breakwater is a fitting that "breaks" the flow of water coming over the bow onto the deck. It helps keep the deck behind it safer for crewmen. It is almost always found on the foc’sle ahead of the first turret. With the Veneto it is located between A and B turrets. On the kit the breakwater is finely done with a series of rear face support gussets.

Although there is less deck detail amidships, this is where you’ll find the long ranks of AA gun turrets. Even here there are quite a few fittings, especially near the aft superstructure. There is a flurry of detail around the Y barbette and then it really proliferates again on the quarterdeck. Amid the gamut of winches, bitts and bollards, there is a centerline track for aircraft trolleys. Another distinctive feature found at the stern is the curving rail for support of the forward edge of the catapult. The quarterdeck is one level below the main deck and at the deck break there is some nice undercut deck, overhanging the transverse bulkhead. No defects were observed in the hull casting but it will require a moderate amount of clean-up on the bottom. There are a number of resin pour stubs to remove and it needs to be leveled with sanding. There is nothing unusual here but it will take an amount of time in part, because of the hard resin used in the kit.

Smaller Resin Detail
Since most of the superstructure is cast as part of the hull, the chief subassemblies with center primarily around the forward tower and secondarily on the much shorter aft tower. Assembly of the tower is rather strait forward. The largest part is the lower conning tower with three levels of bridge. Each level of the tower above that goes together layer after layer like a cake. Bridge windows are clearly defined and extremely good underside detail in the form of platform supports. Bridge levels also have vertical ladders cast on many levels. Each part has some pour stubs that will need to be removed and the juncture between the stub and part. The aft tower is simple in that it consists of a one piece tower upon which various equipment is affixed. Regia Marina provides optional parts for both the Vittorio Veneto and the Littorio, which had minor variations in the forward superstructure. Other optional parts are included to portray the ships in any fit during their service. Other smaller superstructure parts include light AA galleries and the funnel caps. The caps are hollowed with an internal flue divider but the funnel grates are in the form of photo-etch parts. 


Photo-Etched Frets 1 & 2
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After the forward superstructure tower, the most noticeable smaller parts are the main, secondary and tertiary gun turrets. Each of the three main gun turrets has its own crown fittings from none for A, other than carley floats, to different AA positions for B and Y turrets, plus the carleys. The AA positions are cast on the turret complete with splinter shielding. Blast bags are also part of the turret castings. The four triple 6-inch secondary turrets resemble miniature main gun turrets, including twin 20mm mounts on the crowns of the forward two turrets in the 1942 fit. This is another unique feature, as I cannot recall any other battleship design that mounted AA guns on top of secondary turrets. Like the main turrets, the secondary turrets have blast bags cast on the main part. Barrels for both the main guns and secondary guns are machined steel without hollowed muzzles. The long lines of single 90mm AA turrets on their raised pedestals/barbettes dominate the amidships appearance of the model.

There are many finely cast smaller parts. Regia Marina provides an optional fit of ship’s aircraft. Originally, the ships carried two Meridionali Ro. 43 reconnaissance floatplanes. However by 1942 it was obvious to the Italian navy that the Italian airforce could not adequately protect their ships. To compensate wheeled Re. 2000 fighters were added. Autumn 1942 saw each equipped with two Ro. 43 and one Re. 2000. In 1943 Veneto carried one Ro. 43 and two Re. 2000 while Littorio kept the original arrangement of 1942. Once catapulted off the ship the fighter had limited loiter time over the ships before they had to make for an airfield but since they were basically land fighters, unencumbered with floats, it was thought that their better performance was worth their one shot nature. Two of each of the Ro. 43 and Re. 2000 are included in the kit so either ship can be equipped from 1940 through 1943. The parts for both types of aircraft are very nice, so there is no loss of detail, whichever fit that you go with. Other very nicely detailed small parts include the mounts for the twin 37mm AA guns, ship’s boats, carley rafts, gun directors, searchlights, small platforms and other fittings. There is a certain amount of light flash that will need to be removed from the smaller parts, however, this is a minor inconvenience.

Four Photo-Etched Frets
One of the biggest differences between the first release of the Vittorio Veneto and the current release is the inclusion a complete set of photo-etch parts. The first release didn’t have any but this release comes with four stainless steel frets. Fret #1 has the catapult, crane, supports, propellers, aircraft cradles, DF loops, foremast platform, boat chocks, Gufo radar, bow crest, block and tackle, some runs of railing and some runs of inclined ladder. Fret #2 has quite a few platforms, secondary barrel supports, inclined ladders, anchor chain, two long runs of vertical ladder and seven long runs of two-bar railing. Fret #3 has twin 20mm guns, twin 37mm barrels, single 37mm guns, two additional stack grates, along with more supports, platforms, anchor chain and railing. Fret #4 has two types of cable reels, boat chocks, ensign & jack staffs, davits, and more platforms. Frets 1 & 2 also have parts that are used only for Roma


Photo-Etched Frets 3 & 4
Ven1076fret3.JPG (148616 bytes) Ven1077pe20.JPG (113783 bytes) Ven1078pe37.JPG (80562 bytes)
Ven1079aa.JPG (86926 bytes) Ven1080sup.JPG (108602 bytes) Ven1738fret4.JPG (125942 bytes) Ven1739plat.JPG (103192 bytes)
Ven1740reels.JPG (106647 bytes) Ven1741dav.JPG (70026 bytes) Ven1742bt.JPG (52161 bytes) Ven1743det4.JPG (93586 bytes)

Instructions
The Regia Marina Vittorio Veneto comes with four back-printed sheets of instructions. It appears that the instructions for the original issue of the model is included, along with three additional sheets, six pages, of supplementary instructions. This conclusion is based upon the fact that one sheet is much larger in size than the other three. It also shows tertiary barbettes as part of the hull and shows solid resin parts with no photo-etched parts. The front page is history and statistics in Italian along with a plan and profile. Gray shading, especially on the plan, hampers the plan and profile. The gray shading obscures detail in the drawing. The reverse shows an isometric view of the assembly with each part assigned a number. There is also a table listing each part by the number shown in the assembly diagram. Although in Italian, the part is readily identifiable since there is a drawing of it in the main assembly diagram. Two profiles are shown of the camouflage schemes for the Veneto in 1941 in dark gray with light green-gray wedges and 1942 in light gray with dark gray rays. Insets are included for bow variations for July 1941 and May 1942.

The second sheet is solely devoted to the photo-etched parts of Frets 1 & 2. This is organized in a modular format. On the front side, there are modules for capstan tops, platform supports, bow crests, main turrets, secondary turrets, aft railing & platforms, special ladder and stacks. The reverse is dominated by the drawings for the bridgework photo-etch details. Each difference in the bridge of Vittorio Veneto, Littorio and Roma is shown, along with differences based upon the year of the fit. Other modules deal with the catapult, crane & aircraft handling equipment; aft superstructure rigging; barrel support and other odds and ends.

The third sheet deals with photo-etch frets 3 & 4. Most of the material on fret 3 is self-explanatory since most of the parts are antiaircraft guns. However, there are some elevated boat supports for the amidships boat deck. Fret four is dominated by four platforms, which are attached to various levels of the bridge. There are also supports for the Ro. 43 upper wings and other smaller items. The fourth page strictly concerns camouflage schemes, differences in fits and substitutions of photo-etch for the original resin parts. Colors are listed in Italian and English and the Humbrol number is listed. The reverse shows port and starboard camouflage patterns of Littorio in 1941 and Littorio/Italia in 1943. 


Instructions
Ven1744inst1.JPG (146110 bytes) Ven1745inst2o.JPG (142223 bytes) Ven1746inst2oA.JPG (138334 bytes) Ven1747inst2oB.JPG (125903 bytes)
Ven1748inst3o.JPG (74564 bytes) Ven1028inst1.JPG (64301 bytes) Ven1029inst1a.JPG (165025 bytes) Ven1030inst1b.JPG (94611 bytes)
Ven1031inst1c.JPG (87398 bytes) Ven1032inst2.JPG (53271 bytes) Ven1034inst2a.JPG (76015 bytes) Ven1035inst2b.JPG (104823 bytes)
Ven1036inst2c.JPG (80725 bytes) Ven1749inst3.JPG (41505 bytes) Ven1750inst4.JPG (123929 bytes) Ven1752inst5.JPG (57299 bytes)

These instructions can present a pitfall for the unwary. With a total of eight pages, there is plenty of instructions. However, due to the size of the kit, the fact that there were differences between the Veneto and Littorio and the fact that Regia Marina provides optional parts for either ship for any fit, the instructions can be confusing without a thorough examination. Look before you leap! Study the instructions closely and be certain of parts placement before permanently attaching the part. Which ship do you want to build and for what year of fit. Check out the differences in the forward tower between the two as the upper levels varied between them. Simply know which way you are going before you start and then reconn the instructions to see what you can ignore and what parts you have to use.

Verdict
The Regia Marina model of the Vittorio Veneto is a large striking model of a very handsome warship. Like the Italian Ferrari automobile, the Vittorio Veneto is a sleek, beautiful and powerful design. The negatives on this kit are very minor, including clean up of the bottom of the hull, removal of flash from smaller parts and complicated instructions. Everything else is very positive. Regia Marina is by far the most ambitious resin producer for providing every reasonable option for ship and year of fit. Like the original, the Regia Marina Vittorio Veneto makes a bold statement. It should occupy a mandatory position in any 1:700 collection of the Italian navy or World War Two battleships.

RegiaMarina.jpg (5287 bytes)
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